Learn all about accipitridae, diurnal birds of prey.

The family Accipitridae is a group of raptors of this species of diurnal birds, many of which are known as hawks and falcons, in addition to the common goshawk, one of the main birds in this category. These birds are slender, with short rounded wings and a long tail that helps them maneuver during flight.

Description

This is a species of raptors, which possesses a medium to large size, 28 to 114 cm, grayish or brownish, robust and short neck, wide open nostrils, hooked bill, rounded and broad wings with toes at the ends, which is suitable for return.

They live in pairs, and usually the female is a little larger than single males, rarely focusing on the sides, except for the gamar. They are carnivorous, chasing mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and insects and rarely resort to carcasses. They make their nests in many large places, such as blisters, rocks or trees start at no more than 5 eggs, usually one year.

To this family belong birds known as eagles, dragons, gamar, all protected by law from the drastic decline that their populations have suffered recently. In the world there are about 217 species, of which only 19 can be observed in the peninsula.

Birds of small, medium and large size. They have short, strong and very curved fists; the upper jaw has a rounded tooth and the lower jaw with a cut in the corresponding place. The nostrils are located on a bolt located at the base of the stream called wax.

Head flat on top with the eyes placed laterally. Wings broad, legs stout with elastic tarsi to the toes near the claws; legs with strong claws with long, bent, steep nails. Females are larger. Most are live-feeding raptors. some species breed on carrion.

The male has grayish-brown upperparts, with white eyebrows on the underside of the Ojola white, with dark brown transverse stripes; The tail gray-brown, with broad gray stripes. The female is the same as the male, but larger. The young are more clearly above and below, and the lists are broad and arranged in the longitudinal direction. During flight, it is a bird with short wings and a long tail.

Characteristics

The order Accipitriformes includes most of the day seizers. Some authors distinguish that order from the Falconiformes, while others consider them as one. They are generally characterized by: Large, carnivorous birds. Strong and curved beak. Strong claws to kill prey. Extreme vision, to the detriment of smell. They are predators and, therefore, are in the last trophic level (together with the wolf, in the case of the forests of Europe).

The order Accipitriformes does not exist in all classifications. Traditionally, all diurnal sectors (including New World vultures) were placed in the order Falconiformes. Sizuti, this order was dismantled, including families Falconidae, Accipitridae and Sagittaridae in the order Ciconiiformes, while the New World vultures became part of the family Ciconiidae.

Specify naturally that, all day raptor families Falconiformes is in order, except Cathartidae go Ciconiiformes. Clements ranking in 2008, it is also Accipitriformes order and the five prey families (Cathartidae, Pandionidae, Accipitridae, Sagittaridae and Falconidae) are to the order Falconiformes.

However, the International Ornithological Congress (IOC) (30-03-2011), separated the Falcons, in its order (Falconiformes), grouping the remaining families (Cathartidae, Pandionidae, Accipitridae and Sagittaridae), in order Accipitriformes, leaving Dessa the diurnal raptors were separated into two orders. (See Article: Mallard Duck)

The common goshawk is today’s bird of prey of the high quality forest. We can also find it in more open terrain with scattered trees. In winter, I found it in orchards within villages. The common goshawk is found in the forest, where you can do your “surprise search”.

The common goshawk, usually chases birds in flight, which is its favorite change; you will also find medium-sized mammals among its favorite dishes so to speak, until it stops catching them. When he settles down, he assumes a rather sincere attitude and with a contracted throat, he may linger for a long time while waiting for more palatable prey.

Between April and May, the common goshawk species, performs its respective egg laying in a tree performs the single annual rate of 2-4 eggs. Incubation lasts between 36 and 41 days. The duration of the chicks in the state ranges for approximately 40 days. The safety of binoculars depends on the female, because the cock is limited to giving food to life.

They have long legs and long, sharp claws that used to kill their prey and a strong hook count for feeding. Females tend to be larger than males. “They often bite their prey, mainly birds and small mammals, and finish after a short chase. The typical flight pattern is a series of flaps followed by a short glide. They are usually found in wooded or shrubby areas.

Evolution Accipitridae

Accipitridae are a group of birds of prey days with taxonomic category, with worldwide distribution, although most species are found in the Neotropics, this group is composed of more than 200 species. They are characterized by having a large and strong twisted beak, which they use to tear the meat of their prey or carrion. They, in turn, feature strong legs and claws, as they add an excellent vantage point, allowing them to locate a wide range of gyres.

Accipitridae (Accipitridae) is a clade of diurnal birds of prey, with taxonomic category of the family, cosmopolitan distribution (although most species live in the Neotropics) consisting of more than 200 species.1 Characterized by a hooked, large and strong bill, as they use it to tear meat from their byte or carrion. They, in turn, feature strong legs and claws, which gives them an excellent vantage point, allowing them to locate potential prey at great distances.

Due to the explosive effect of modern molecular biology, the current classification of Accipitridae is disputed. Osprey, sometimes regarded as a subfamily of Accipitridae is often marketed as belonging to the family Pandionidae; so does the new world Gamar which is part of the family Cathartidae, rather than as a subfamily of Accipitridae.

The Elanios (elaninae), which represents the most basal within Accipitridae lineage, have black and white wings, average size, and long, all specialized rodent hunters. Like the rest of the Accipitridae, they have an almost cosmopolitan distribution, with three species endemic to the Americas, two in Australia, one in Africa and one in South Asia. The common elan (black-winged happy) is the only one with a wide range, from Europe and Africa to Southeast Asia.

In addition, the Gypaetinae group and the permanent gypsum and gypsum morphology show heterogeneous feeding habits.Gypaetinae consists of species that vary as lamb goat (Gypaetus barbatus), honey snakes, short smoothie eagles and old-growth ghosts.

The bees are trapping medium-sized, warm-weather wings, although European beech (Pernis apivorus) and eastern beehives (tributary beasts) have a wider geographic distribution. In turn, several species in this line are insectivorous, and many specialize on varicose veins, although some individuals also feed on reptiles.

Unlike vultures, short eagles exhibit more pronounced sizes and broader wings. As their name in language indicates, they are specialized birds that feed primarily on snakes and other reptiles. The only exception is the short eagle (Terathopius ecaudatus), a less specialized hunter.

All species are restricted to the warm zones of the Old World. Within this envelope, Monera also illuminates the Philippine Eagle (Aguila filipina), which is the largest raptor, which is one of the most endangered.

Finally, the yellow birds of the ancient world, so they feed mainly on dead animals. Lacking an advanced sense of smell compared to other peasants such as the new world (Cathartidae), the bodies found only sight. A special feature of many gamans is baldness, devoid of feathers as a bloodstain on the head with feathers and other fluids, and it is difficult to keep clean.

They are not closely related to the New World vultures, belonging to a different clade, resulting in similarities between the two groups as a result of evolutionary convergence. They spread throughout the Old World and North America under Neogene.

Similarly, the Harpiinae and Aquilinae groups show a great diversity of species whose support harpies, of which the two species are distributed in the Neotropics (Morphnus guianensis and Harpy Eagle), while the Papua shrew eagles (Harpyopsis dacelo) which is endemic to the island of New Guinea. In addition, Aquilinae is composed of large raptors, among which are called “golden eagles.”

The groups with the most species correspond to Accipitrinae (hawks and sparrowhawks) and buteonines. The first clade species are generally forest birds that seek sudden results from a hidden perch. They usually have short, rounded wings, long tails, and a large eye glint.

These adjustments serve for forest life and let them fly smoothly between tree branches with skillful maneuvering without wings breaking on branches that prevent them from flying. Goshawk, thanks to its greater change in all mammals and birds of the forest, what their prey, Woodcock birds, pigeons and crows, or different mammals such as hares, rabbits and even predators such as stoats and martens. (See Article: Dabbling Duck)

The Sparrowhawks but choose cuckoo birds, broodis or Magpie and Jay cock birds. Meanwhile Buteoninae species clade medium voracious and large broad-winged, among which stands out the osprey.

Habitat

One of the main members of this species, is the naturally known as The goshawk is a less spectacular forest of raptors (like sparrowhawk) is known for its strong and powerful structure when left to look and its low but majestic colorful plumage with an average size similar or smaller to Mockingbird Busardo.

There are very secretive habits and behaviors. Day swift raptor, species Accipiter gentilis accipitriforme, family Accipitridae, this bird of prey, peregrine falcon and peregrine following, cataloged wild and fearsome hunters. It lives about 10 years. It produces a deep and powerful sound, the “guik” of the Goshawk can be heard at great distances while flying over its territory.

The Northern Goshawk is a champion in search of its surprise attack.Fast and precise, thanks to powerful, rapid and acrobatic flight. The flight of this duck hawk is a distinctive feature that separates the species, flying with incredible skill among the trees, turning its wings rapidly alternating with glides.

It can sit completely and therefore passes between branches and vines hanging from the tree, thanks to the shape of the body, its medium, its short, rounded wings and shape of its tail barred and quite long, will allow it to operate with rapid changes of direction, especially when it follows its change of thick forests.

Although its beak is curved and special for tearing prey, the Goshawk kills its victim with its claws, exerting strong pressure. To do this, its claws are blunt, short and quite strong, a characteristic it has in common with eagles and hawks. The goshawk is sold as a bird of prey for falconry. Its size is 90 to 110 cm and the female is always larger than the male.

Young goshawks have light yellow to reddish tones on the upperparts, with dark brown patches on the underparts; in adults the plumage is shades of brown to gray, with black and gray barring on the upperparts, and whitish barred horizontally in the dark on the underparts. Above the eyes, they have a peculiar white spot.

This raptor lives in plains or mountains, always in dense and leafy forests. Its distribution is quite wide, found in North America, Asia and Europe. He finds his hunting ground in forest edges, in large clearings and in fields.

Feeding

It is supposed to eat between 160 and 190 grams of fresh meat per day; its varied diet includes a wide range of smaller birds, such as pigeons, bagpipes, honeydew, crows, legs, cranes, and small mammals such as rabbits, squirrels, rabbits, mice, softies, lizards, and insects.

Its habit is to pursue its victim, stealthy, planted in a subsidiary finds its prey that attacks suddenly and continues to give chase, if the prey is small devours once, but if large leads to a stop to tear it and eat it. After eating, they regurgitate balls with undigested remains, usually leg, bone, hair, plant material with abundant cellulose, teeth, nails and feathers, which are difficult to digest by birds.

It has few enemies, because it itself is a fearsome adversary for other animals, the species that would represent a danger to the nests should move away so as not to be a hunting prey for the couple.

The goshawk feeds mainly on different types of birds, such as jays, pigeons, jackdaws, partridges and even rabbits and squirrels. Hunting uses its great ability to maneuver within the forest. From the air or up on a branch, locate their prey to drive and chase; If it is very large, it is ripped in the same place, if it is smaller, it is taken to a perch where it melts. After eating hay it regurgitates in the form of egagropyle the hardest parts to bring down its prey.

The hawk’s flight is very fast, strong and acrobatic, with its tail design allowing rapid changes in the direction of the forest thicket, thus easily reaching its prey, by instinct. The hawk emits a powerful and serious “guik” sound that can be heard from a great distance, especially when flying over its territory.

The goshawk is a species present in the Sierra de Baza, but its numbers are not known precisely because of the difficulty of observation found in the dense forest where it lives. It is a sedentary species that “can be observed in the pine forests of the repopulation, Pinus halapesis, P. pinaster and P. sylvetris” (J.M. Pleguezuelos, 1992). In the Sierra de Baza there are many places that are suitable habitats for this species, which leads us to believe that in Granada “43 pairs have been located”.

Reproduction of the species Accipitridae

Among the raptors of our birds, the Common Goshawk and the Common Hawk are foreign and giant hunters. The Common Goshawk, the champion of the surprise attacker, is especially fast and accurate. On the other hand, its morphology is good for this hunting technique. Its size and power allow it to capture medium-sized species, and its long tail is a very effective rudder for making sudden changes when chasing its victims through the air. (See Article: Crested Duck)

Invited into large forests, it sets up its hunting grounds on borders, in broad shadows and hedged fields. Disputed in a branch – his discreet life guarantees him excellent camouflage – he waits patiently for a powder to approach. Finally he leaves his retreat and pounces on his victim before she has time to fly.

The common goshawk is on the verge of disappearing. However, it helps to limit the number of Bluebirds, Magpies, Crows and Pigeons, their favorite game. Because of its special plant for hunting in wooded lands, the Common Goshawk has been a favorite bird of the Falcons since ancient times.

The Northern Goshawk nests in large trees. The nest has the shape of a platform made of several branches, often of large size, because its construction is made on another old nest.

The pair of goshawks, while alive remains together and can be separated during the winter where many times the birds leave the forest, but when entering spring female always go to the place where previously nested and constant and loud cries, calls her male, who already wandered through that forest and responds to that call immediately approaching the nest.

Once the nest is ready, every day, shortly before sunrise, the pair externalizes their estrus with a duo of continuous cries. Laying consists of three to five eggs, which are incubated by the female for a period of approximately 30 to 41 days, during which the male remains nearby and is responsible for providing food.

The egg is blue or white, to the eye it appears to be “dirty” with no spots. Incubation begins with the first egg, as the female does not stray from the nest. At hatching, the chicks are covered with a white down, after 30 days the colorful feather suit begins to appear. The chicks make their first flight between adjacent branches from day 35. By 45 days of life they have developed a better flight, hunting with adults, but they are not independent until 70 days of life.

Lesser Goshawk or Accipitridae

With length reaches 27 to 34 cm accipitridae small, gray and white. Dark gray on adults with strong brown hind neck and pale gray parts. Juveniles have dark crowns, reddish back with black spotting and pale ventral beige with strong dark lines. Lesser Black-backed Goshawk in New Britain is a natural Oceania. Its distribution is limited to the islands of New Britain and the Bismarck Archipelago east of New Guinea.

Recently discovered in New Ireland, where it was the most common (but not so common) raptor in montane forest. It lives in the forest. You can see it in the margins and clearing vegetation. It is documented from sea level to 1800 meters altitude.Conservation: the population is estimated to be only between 1,000 and 2,499 people.

The greatest threat to the continued existence of this species is destroying food which has led to the decline of the birds in lowland forests.

Protection of forests on small islands leaves the species with a smaller habitat and a much less secure environment, leading to its vulnerability. There are no known conservation measures for its capture, but it has been proposed that surveys were conducted to estimate population size and observe livestock, and to distribute the remaining forests. There are also plans to put pressure on the main community-based conservation areas.

Conservation of Accipitridae

During the second half of the 19th century, direct persecution and deforestation suffered and the population declined after pesticide episodes due to chlorogenic organ toxicity. With the new century, habitat loss continues to be a major threat factor due to unorganized forestry practices and the increase of urban areas, communication networks, etc. In addition, persecution remains a threat in many European regions, not least in Spain.

Intentional and trapping is a common practice in the small game of Cotos, in terms of migration and linked to breeding pigeons for competitions, where death is given to the Azores throughout the year.

In addition, the plundering of chicks for counterfeiting remains a major threat factor that can lead to the loss of large numbers of chicks in certain regions. Even captive breeding is legal and in many provinces stringent genetic controls are carried out in many provinces, copy sales are still in the field of counterfeit paper still common.

Forest fires pose a threat to the habitat of certain populations of goshawk poplar. But so far, the effect of large forest fires on the Spanish population has not been evaluated, although it could affect its development, especially in Mediterranean localities. Predation of nestlings and adult berguv was an important factor in some regions and has increased as populations have increased owl.

Forest management should take into account the needs of the species, taking measures such as locating nests before the implementation of forest treatments, increasing the species diversity of conifer plantations, increased shifts cut in the stands according to the conservation of the species a minimum number of plots and area suitable breeding habitat and hunting habitat in areas subject to large registration.

Increasing habitat heterogeneity to increase populations of prey species, delaying reproduction processes (biological rest) and preservation.