The buchon gaditano is a pigeon native to Spain. It is a very old pigeon, from the province of Cadiz (Andalusia). It is a breed that in its breeding has remained very secretive, learn more about it in this article.
- 1 Origin of the Buchon Gaditano
- 2 Feeding
- 3 Gaditano Buchon in Flight
- 4 Threats
Origin of the Buchon Gaditano
It is a bird (family columbidae) rather large, often gray, very common in cities, known for its swaying gait and its cry, cooing. The gadwall pigeons represent the columbidae family, characterized by their cooing, which they emit especially during the breeding season. These long-tailed birds with well-proportioned wings are excellent sailors. They have a small round head and rather short legs.
At the beginning of the 20th century, three breeds of buchons were found in Cadiz:
- The old buchona from the Spanish Levante, which flew with its flat tail.
- The Rafeña
- The Marchenera, this last one was known in Cadiz and in other places of Spain also called Coliteja, because of the way in which it placed its tail during the flight in the form of an Arabian tile.
During the first and second decade of the 20th century, a type of pigeon called buchon gaditano was obtained as a result of crosses made with the breeds mentioned above.
Typically, the name pigeon is given to the blue-gray species of the genus Columba , while the name turtledove is given to the smaller species of the genus Streptopelia . Some white pigeons are also called doves . Although some tropical species are colorful, such as the Nicobar pigeon, the green pigeon or the crowned goura, most have a rather dull plumage.
The most common breed in Europe is the passenger pigeon, the forerunner of all domestic varieties, including homing pigeons in the sense of infallible guidance. The wood pigeon is a large pigeon with a bluish-gray head and back, with white neck sides and wings, which becomes common in cities. The buchon gaditano is characteristic of Spain. (See Article: Pigeon Torcaz)
- General appearance: the pigeon buchon gaditano is of medium size. Approximate weight of 250 gr, sustained, approximately 45 degrees
- Head: the head of the buchon gaditano is elliptical, narrow and smooth
- Eyes: cock for all the subjects, vetch for the whites, pearl eye or lemon yellow background more or less intense among the browns
- Turn to the eye: fine, grayish color except for the dunes where pink is admitted
- Size of medium length and color matching the plumage of the buchon gaditano.
- Varieties: All varieties of the buchon gaditano that are well defined are permitted. They must be frank in the bruises and blue scales admit that the rump is clear.
- Faults: Ball too high or not voluminous enough with head the wide, high forehead of the buchon gaditano that is too high in the legs, if it has the tail split, or the color of eyes of pale color of an undefined color, with pink eyes ??in different varieties, those are considered defects of the breed. (See Article: Passenger Pigeon)
Buchon gadwall pigeons and turtle doves consume mainly seeds, but also fruits and shoots (the pigeon beetle can be omnivorous). They regularly ingest small pebbles to facilitate the grinding of food in the gizzard.
Pigeons, gregarious outside the mating season, usually nest in pairs. The female lays 1 or 2 white eggs in a nest of twigs. The young, which remain in the nest for a long time, are fed with the secretion of the adult crop, “pigeon milk”, which is reminiscent of mammals in its composition.
Despite the use of pigeons (Columba livia domestica) since 2500 BC.by humans for meat production, ornamental plants, sport and experimental animals, limited information is available on their nutrient and feeding requirements. (See Article: Paloma Zurita)
The pigeon buchon gaditano results in a rather low production for meat. It is especially a pleasure bird of which there are many breeds: bush, bearded capucins, shells, tie, fledglings, high-flying, among others. The breeding of the passenger pigeon (or racing pigeons) requires a lot of care. The rock pigeon is capable of traveling up to 900 kilometers. (See Article: Rabiche Pigeon)
This could be attributed in part to the rearing of growing chicks (pigeons) to mature body weight at 28 days by the parents. The chicks have an extraordinarily high maturation rate compared to other domestic fowl species such as poults and quail.
This growth rate is achieved by regurgitation of a holocrine substance (crop milk) by both parents, formed in response to prolactin secretion and triggered by the brood. Cultured milk consists primarily of protein and fat and lacks significant levels of carbohydrates. In addition, adult pigeons are fed primarily whole grain mixtures.
The special feeding characteristics inherent to the pigeon preclude extrapolation of nutrient requirements determined with other bird species. A dietary crude protein content of between 12% and 18% and a metabolizable energy content based on brood production are recommended for feeding adult pigeons.
Apparent metabolizable energy, corrected for nitrogen retention for corn , barley, sorghum and peas did not differ substantially from values derived for poultry. Pigeons could utilize lipids better than carbohydrates as energy sources. Feed additives and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Andalusia, although the largest autonomous region of southern Spain, has a common characteristic throughout its territory: the climate and light, the result of many hours of sunshine all year round, which marks the cheerful and hospitable character of its inhabitants, enchanting anyone who visits, can be observed in flight to the buchon gaditano.
Paradoxically, contrast is also the norm in Andalusia: you can visit from the warm valley of the Guadalquivir, to the lush mid-mountain sierras, through the volcanic landscapes of the Tabernas desert and the white peaks of the Sierra Nevada and, of course, with 900 km of coastline, the Andalusian coast is home to countless beaches that delight tourists and travelers alike.
All the provinces of Andalusia offer a rich cultural and historical heritage to visit, whether modern, baroque, classical, Christian, Moorish, Roman or even older. This busy past has led Andalusia to have no less than 5 sites classified as world cultural heritage:
- The historic center of Cordoba and its Mosque-Cathedral (1984)
- The Alhambra, Generalife and Albaicin of Granada (1984)
- The Cathedral, the Alcazar and the Archive of the Indies of Seville (1987)
- The monumental cities of Ubeda and Baeza (2003)
Of course, Seville, Granada and Cordoba, often referred to as the Andalusian Golden Triangle, are among the most visited cities in Andalusia. But beyond the architectural treasures of these cities, the Andalusia contains in its provinces, in areas sometimes even less touristic, other cultural treasures that are worth a trip.
Thus, the Roman ruins of Acinipo can be visited near Ronda in the province of Malaga , impressive for its condition, and the castle of Calahorra , in the province of Granada , surprising for its architecture at the same time Renaissance and medieval . A visit to the troglodyte sites of the Comarca de Guadix is also highly recommended, the largest troglodyte habitat site in Europe!
Andalusia has more than 80 natural areas, parks and reserves, which all we can see, and which constitute 18% of its territory. It is the Spanish community pioneer in the defense of the environmental heritage.
Most of this space is occupied by Natural Parks, to which must be added the emblematic National Park of Sierra Nevada and Doñana, declared “Biosphere Reserve” by UNESCO. The 22 Natural Parks of Andalusia correspond to mountainous and coastal areas, such as the Cap de Gata in Almeria.
These parks are themselves of great diversity, from the wood of a single tree species in the world of Grazalema and the Sierra de las Nieves (near Ronda) to the fabulous karst rock formations of the Sierra del Torcal in Antequera, passing through the steep region of the Alpujarras. In this mountainous region of the Sierra Nevada, don’t miss a visit to the white villages of the Poqueira ravine with their unique architecture!
Gaditano Buchon in Flight
They say that the buchon gaditano is a pigeon disappeared, giving way to another of greater volume and mostly for exhibitions.
The Flight of the Birds
The aerodynamics of flight mechanisms of birds, always poorly understood, have been cleared both by direct observation of behavior in the field, by the use of speed cinematography and stroboscope, as well as a multitude of experiments involving among others, the study of the problems of mechanics (material resistance), aerodynamics and energetics.
There is no “avian flight”, but various types of flight are more or less predominant in various species, together with factors such as size and morphology. Characteristic feature of specific behavior and directly related to anatomy, in terms of ecology, the type of flight appears as one of the most significant elements of the precise adaptation of each species to a particular “ecological niche”.
In addition, the flight regime of the gadwall varies for each species during a given flight, the circumstances are very different at take-off, landing and during cruise flight. These phases or flight regimes will be examined first in a species such as pigeon, where they are fairly well understood, and then a very quick inventory will be made of the types of flight observed in birds.
The wing movements related to the flight of the Gadwall’s crested buchon are very complex and defy rapid description. Each region of the wing must be considered to have a particular and changing profile, moving in all three dimensions of space with respect to a forward-moving pivot.
These circumstances correspond to constantly changing aerodynamic situations and, therefore, differ greatly from the flow conditions usually studied in aerodynamics. Therefore, we are still far from having a satisfactory understanding of it. However, the work of the English biologist and aerodynamicist JM Rayner (1979-1981) was used to quantify the energy exchanges existing, during flapping flight, between the animal and the environment.
Air pollution is caused by the presence of toxic substances in the atmosphere, mainly produced by human activity in recent years.These gases and chemicals generate a series of phenomena and consequences for the ecosystems and living beings that populate our planet.
Air pollution affects everyone and all sectors: animals such as the Gadon buchon, cultures, cities, forests, aquatic ecosystems. In recent years, however, we are interested in two areas in particular, which suffer the many adverse consequences of air pollution: the environment and human health.
The consequences of air pollution on the environment
Polluted air, floating on the earth’s surface, is carried away by wind and rain. Clouds and high temperatures also help disperse pollution to reach very long distances from its point of origin. Air pollution has a major impact on the process of plant evolution by preventing photosynthesis in many cases, with serious consequences for the purification of the air we breathe.
The accumulation of gas in the atmosphere also generates environmental problems sadly known consequences: acid rain, ozone layer depletion, global warming, greenhouse effect. The concentration of these gases in the atmosphere, mainly carbon dioxide, increases on average by 1% per year.
This phenomenon is due to the properties of certain gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and chlorofluorocarbons) to trap the sun’s heat in the atmosphere, preventing it from returning to space after being reflected by the earth.
Air pollution contributes to the formation of acid rain, atmospheric precipitation such as rain, frost, snow or fog that is released during the combustion of fossil fuels and transformed by contact with water vapor in the atmosphere. Acid rain changes the amount of chemicals in soils and fresh water, affecting food chains.
The consequences of air pollution on human health
Our continuous exposure to these air pollutants is responsible for the deterioration of human health. Air pollution can cause cardiovascular problems, allergies, asthma attacks, conjunctivitis, bronchial diseases, lung or skin cancer, vision problems, blood diseases, problems in children’s mental development, among others. The most vulnerable people are children, the elderly, pregnant women and the sick.
Thus, some scientists have been able to establish a direct link between the increase in particulate pollutants in cities and the thickening of the inner lining of arteries or atherosclerosis. Many studies have also found that groups of people living near busy urban areas have more respiratory problems than average and are more likely to develop diseases. Cases of children with bronchitis and slow lung development are much more common in large cities.
Artificial Nighttime Lighting
It has become light pollution in urban areas, not only an inconvenience for sleepers and astronomers: it also affects the behavior of animals such as birds. In urban areas, artificial lights are so numerous that they interfere with the normal and desirable darkness of night. Therefore, at dusk, countless artificial light sources (street lighting, advertising signs, shop windows, permanently illuminated offices) catch the sun.
Then it is called light pollution, a form of nuisance that is not often mentioned and yet has certain consequences, especially on animals, including birds. Artificial lighting at night kills millions of insects every year.Attracted by the city lights, flying insects exhaust themselves around the light sources, to the delight of the spiders weaving their webs.
If the disappearance of insects does not arouse great emotion, remember that many butterflies suffer, but almost a third of these pollinating insects are endangered in Europe. According to the study, the increase in artificial night lighting also affects the behavior and reproduction of birds. For example, migratory birds are disturbed by artificial lights at night: they go astray and can even strike, fatally, high illuminated buildings.
If artificial light does not always have these fatal consequences, it can nevertheless have a considerable influence on an animal’s life, is the conclusion of this study conducted on five species of songbirds. However, light pollution misleads females, who can then make decisions that are detrimental to their future offspring.
The researchers also analyzed the consequences on reproduction. For seven consecutive years, they monitored reproductive activities in blue tits. Women living near artificial light sources were found on average one and a half days earlier than women living in areas without artificial lighting at night or in the heart of forests.
Females start reproducing earlier and generally produce more eggs per spawn and are often better off than those that start laying eggs later in the season. Advantages in food availability for the little ones.
In addition, light influences the number of male extramarital partners. In fact, scientists have found that males that are exposed to city lights are twice as likely to mate from mates than those in darker areas of the forest.
This behavior is more pronounced in younger males who are generally less likely to mate out of mates. Beyond direct effects that may appear partially positive, modification of certain behaviors in blue tits may have consequences for the survival and adaptation of adults and chicks.
Contamination of Plants and Insects
Plants are on the front line of air pollution because they live safely and form the basis of functioning terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The nature and magnitude of the impact of air pollutants on plants will depend on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the affected plant and the properties of the pollutants encountered.
The physiological alterations of plants are varied and can be observed, according to the nature of the pollutant, in more or less extensive areas ranging from the local scale to the entire planet. These responses will immediately affect the functioning of ecosystems and, in particular, plant-insect relationships.
Physiological Responses of Plants
While plants, because of their fixed life and wide distribution, are among the first victims of air pollution, they can also be a source of secondary pollution. In hot weather, they emit volatile organic compounds such as terpenes, one of the ozone precursor gases.
In cities in warm regions it is recommended not to plant some trees (pines, oaks, among others) to avoid increasing ozone levels. Plants also emit fine particles (pollen, spores, waxy compounds, various particles) which, if they have no effect on plants, can have effects on human health (allergies).
The penetration of contaminants into plants occurs mainly through the leaves (Figure 2). There may also be slight penetration through the stems and trunk. Before reaching the leaf, the contaminant will first have to cross the “boundary layer” which corresponds to the layer of unagitated air in contact with it. The thickness of this layer depends on the size and shape of the leaf, the presence of hairs (or trichomes) and the wind speed. Its thickness is of the order of a few tenths of a millimeter.
During its temporary presence in this boundary layer, many reactions are likely to occur because the incident pollutant will react with:
- An aqueous phase consisting of the water film present on the leaf surface, as well as water bound to the polar groups of the cuticle
- A lipid phase consisting of waxes present in the breast (intracuticular waxes) or located on the surface (epicuticular waxes) of the cuticle
- A gaseous phase consisting of the components of the atmosphere and leaf emissions.
Depending on the nature of the reactions that will or will not take place in the boundary layer, the concentration of the contaminant that will enter the plant can vary greatly. Some products of these reactions are even more phytotoxic than the contaminant itself.
Gaseous pollutants enter the plant as other atmospheric gases such as oxygen, among others, mainly through the stomata present on leaf surfaces. On the other hand, a large part of the organic pollutants will be absorbed mainly through the lipid structure that constitutes the cuticle. Only a small part will penetrate into the leaf, then diffuse and react between and in the different internal compartments that constitute the apoplast and symplast.
The contaminating particles (organic or inorganic) are first collected by the leaf surfaces (through micro-relief created by the presence of epicuticular waxes, trichomes, among others, in a size range that is typically between 1 and 10.
In the forest, this deposit of particles can range from 280 to 1000 kg per hectare. Thereafter, weather conditions such as wind, sun and rain especially (leaching leaves, dissolving inorganic particles) influence the deposit characteristics.
Thanks to the efficiency of the cuticular barrier, the organic or inorganic leaf deposit is often the cause only a slight penetration of pollutants into the leaves and therefore has low physiological effects. After penetration, the physiological response of plants to air pollution will depend on two actors involved: firstly the characteristics of the plant and secondly the nature of the pollution.
The plant reacts to air pollution by producing reactive oxygen derivatives. After penetration into the leaves, and as for most biotic and abiotic stresses, pollutants initially cause oxidative plant stress with production of free radicals (hydroxyl radicals) and reactive oxygen derivatives that can cause damage at different levels. In particular, these will have three main targets at the cellular level: lipids (at the membrane level), proteins (at the amino acid level) and nucleic acids (adduct formation).
At the same time, the pollutant will cause a specific stress related to its specific physicochemical characteristics:
- Thus, in the case of hydrofluoric acid contamination, there will be a disruption of cellular calcium metabolism (calcium precipitation).
- In the case of contamination with sulfur oxides the reducing properties of this gas will disrupt the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus (degradation of chlorophyll).
- On the other hand, acid rain causes mineral deficiencies that lead to yellowing of the leaves after pluvi- leaching of the mineral elements Ca, K and Mg.
- Faced with these stresses, the plant’s classic defense strategy aims at limiting the uptake of the pollutant and increasing its tolerance to it.
Consists of implementing:
- physical processes: closing stomata, fallen leaves
- chemical and biochemical processes.