The Dacelo Cucaburras hunter is an Australian bird of the alcedinidae family, this bird is mythical in Aboriginal culture, and its song resembles a hoarse laugh.
National Bird of the State of New South Wales
The capital of New South Wales is Sydney, the site of the country’s oldest European settlement and the largest and most cosmopolitan city in New South Wales. the state, with ethnic communities from more than 100 countries. Among the city’s treasures are the Cricket Ground, the Harbour Bridge, the Opera House and the annual Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras.
Australia’s main international gateway, Sydney hosts the 2000 Olympic Games. New South Wales is located in the temperate south, with an eastern frontage on the Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea.
The coastal strip, where most people live, is a rich agricultural area with subtropical productions in the north as well as cooler climates in the south. There are relics of ancient rainforests in the coastal valleys. The snow-capped mountain range includes the highest point on the continent, Mount Kosciuszko (2,228 m) and offers skiers vast winter snowfields, which attracts during the summer in the northern hemisphere of winter sports enthusiasts from abroad.
A high of 51 degrees Celsius in the shade was recorded in the far western town of Bourke. About one-third of Australians live and work in New South Wales, which has strong agricultural, livestock and mining production, a large manufacturing base, and a highly sophisticated service area, with media, film and software production.
The state produces about one-third of the country’s exports and more than half of the exports are shipped to the Asia-Pacific region. New South Wales has the Waratah as its floral emblem, the platypus as its animal emblem and the Kookaburra (giant hunter) as its bird emblem. The name New South Wales was given by the lieutenant and late Captain James Cook to the entire east coast of the continent during his voyage of exploration in 1770. (See Article: Common Accentor)
Bird of Australia
Of the 828 bird species recorded in Australia, about half are endemic, including the Kookaburras . These range from small meliphages to imposing emus that can reach nearly 2 meters in height. It is in grasslands, sclerophyll forests and wooded savannah that you are most likely to see emus in the wild. A wide variety of birds, waterfowl and seabirds live in our open woodlands and forest areas. Examples include casears, black swans, pygmy penguins, kookaburras, lyrebirds and currawongs. Kangaroo Island in South Australia and Phillip Island in Victoria abound with penguins.
You can see Albert’s Mennonite, a special bird species, in Mt Warning National Park and in the Gondwana rainforest in the Gold Coast hinterland. Admire the Common Worm in the Dandenong Ranges and Kinglake National Parks around Melbourne and in the Royal National Park and Illawarra region south of Sydney. You will also see it in the Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve near Canberra, on Tower Hill in Victoria, and in several national parks along the east coast of Australia.
Kookaburras is best known for its cry, a kind of hysterical laughter it emits at dawn and dusk. It is in the countryside and on the outskirts of towns that you will have the best opportunity to see the Broome Bird Observatory and Kakadu National Park are two exceptional sites to observe many species of marshland birds and migratory birds.
There are 55 species of parrots in Australia, all equally colorful, including an exceptional variety of cockatiels, cockatiels, cockatiels and parakeets, including the famous Kookaburras. We see them everywhere in urban and rural areas.
Australia’s unique animals are a great asset in attracting visitors from all over the world, and many of Australia’s zoos are among the most popular in the world. Australia has both public and private zoos. Some Australian zoos have exotic species such as big cats and elephants, while others focus on native animals and birds.
Australia’s zoos and nature reserves are dedicated to environmental protection studies and awareness, which are essential for the preservation of endangered species. Many Australian zoos host special events and offer “behind-the-scenes” tours, as well as accommodation options that allow the animals to be closely monitored.
Description of Cucaburras
The Kookaburras is a stubby bird 45 centimeters long, about 500 grams, with a large head, a brown eye and a very large, pointed bill. The male is easily distinguished from the female by the blue of the wings and the dark blue of the tail. The female has some light blue on the wings, but no blue on the tail.
The large whitish head is topped by a small brown cap. A brown line leads from the eye to the temples. The thick bill is black and horny in color. The dark brown back, brown and light blue wings contrast with the whitish underside. The tail, long enough, has brown and black bars. Its end is white. The legs are short and gray.
In general the Kookaburras has a robust and characteristic silhouette, the same distribution of volumes as all hunters, category to which it belongs. At the edge of its range, where both areas overlap, it can be confused with the Blue-winged Kookaburras (Dacelo Leachii). In the latter however, the broad brown forehead is absent, the tail is blue, the eyes and pale wings are covered with a thick blue tape that leaves no doubt about its identification. (See Article: Corvus Monedula)
This bird of eastern Australia, recently introduced in the southwest and Tasmania, the Kookaburras frequents the edges and clearings of priority forest, open landscapes and open enough for hunting. But it can also be seen in wooded savannahs and nearby settlements. It is found throughout eastern Australia and has been introduced to Tasmania, the Flinders Islands and New Zealand. It lives in all wooded areas and does not fear the proximity of man.
Distribution is restricted to eastern and southwestern mainland Australia and Tasmania. In the central-north and northwest, it is replaced by the blue-winged subspecies. In Queensland, both birds live, although the Laughing Kookaburras has a continental location, while the blue-winged species tends to occupy coastal areas.
Given the diversity of its diet, the Kookaburras uses multiple hunting techniques. Prey may be captured on land or in vegetation or water. Capture is always preceded by a period of observation during which the bird watching from a perch discovers its potential prey. Kookaburras live in family groups. The upbringing of the young is a bit peculiar.
The chicks may be supported by the pair alone, but in some circumstances, the parents are assisted by an education committee consisting of 3 to 6 birds ranging in age from one to two years from possible offspring and helping the pair raise their young.These assistant educators assume the same responsibility as parents. In the latter case, the defense of the territory is collective. (See Article: Curlew Warbler)
Everything that flies ramp walking and swimming and that has a size adapted to its predation is likely to end up under its nose or under the legs of the Kookaburras, insects, crabs and fish, worms and snails, chicks, spiders, frogs, small rodents, lizards. Smaller prey are swallowed whole. Larger prey, on the other hand, are killed by hitting them against the ground or a tree branch. Kookaburras are not very shy around humans, and readily accept pieces of meat. Although this food has already been “pre-treated”, the bird does not hit less against the ground, as if it were live prey.
Feeds while waiting for prey to pass nearby to rush, carnivorous, eats mice and similar small mammals, large insects, lizards, small birds and chicks, and especially snakes. It preferentially attacks prey smaller than itself. But it is not unusual for it to attack animals much larger than itself, especially venomous snakes. Smaller prey are swallowed alive, larger prey are first killed by hitting them hard on the ground.
Kookaburras nesting season occurs between September and December (reverse seasons in the southern hemisphere). The pair remains together for the rest of their lives. The nest is placed in a hollow tree or on an arboreal mound. It is usually a bare chamber placed in a natural cavity. The laying ranges from two to four eggs. Both parents take turns to care for the upbringing of the young. Young Kookaburras fledge 4 to 5 weeks after hatching.
The mating season is in early summer from October to November. Couples are faithful and convent and care for the young. The female lays one egg every two days and the clutch is usually three eggs. Kookaburras cubs have a hook on the top of their beak that will disappear as they age, but this harpoon may be used in fights between chicks if food is not sufficient. The more fragile siblings may be killed by their brothers and sisters. (See Article: Crossbill)
- The scientific name of the genus “Dacelo” is an anagram of the word Alcedo , which in Latin means kingfisher (the European species is called Alcedo atthis). The species name “novaeguineae” “New Guinea” refers to a geographical error as to the bird’s country of origin. Its name (an onomatopoeia of its cry) comes from the aboriginal Wiradjuri language, now extinct. This term introduced European languages until the 20th century, other names being used previously by zoologists: Kingfisher Laughing , Big Kingfisher Marron and other names of Aboriginal origin as Go- gan ne gine, Cuck’anda, Gogera , Gogobera, among others.
- In 2010, a young Australian farmer discovered the young Kookaburrasalbino, males, females and juveniles look identical.
- The Kookaburras cry is emblematic of Australia’s soundscape. It was also used to make the sound effects for the old “Tarzan” movies with Johnny Weissmuller (1930), which is absurd since the action is supposed to take place in Africa.
- Kookaburras is the national bird of the state of New South Wales (one of the Australian states)
Thanks to the Aborigines, for whom land, animals and plants are intimately linked, Australia appears as a natural sanctuary. Discover in these times when the planet’s environment is threatened. In the south of Australia, the sea looks like a huge ballet scene animated by whales.Every year, during the austral winter, between June and September, always in the same place, they arrive by the dozens to breed and give birth to their young. In accomplishing this immutable rite, they offer a sumptuous spectacle visible from the top of impressive cliffs. The cetaceans, which have been hunted for decades, are now protected, and there are now some 3,000 in southern waters.
On the map, near Head of Bight , there is a small spot: Nullarbor , which is imagined to be a quiet village near this deserted coast. In fact, there is only one type of fashionable “aussie” Bagdad Cafe. This motel service station, located on One Road, which connects Adelaide to 3000 kilometers in Perth, welcomes visitors who come to watch the whales.
A naive sculpture depicting a cetacean, standing near the gas pumps, confirms this unique regional tourist attraction. As the name suggests, Nullarbor is also a desert area due to the salty karst soil that does not allow any trees to take root. On the edge of the state of South Australia , this fascinating lunar landscape accompanies travelers from east to west for hundreds of miles.
A jealously guarded land. The desert occupies two thirds of this large continent about 14 times France. This inhospitable wilderness is dotted with large farms run by whites. But only the aborigines have really managed to dominate it for millennia. They are one with it, they deeply respect it. Hence the conflicts and misunderstandings that have long opposed this people to the settlers.
But the situation is beginning to improve thanks to the 1985 agreements between the government and the aborigines. The land was handed over and the rights granted to the first occupants of Australia. Thus, the famous Uluru Rock (Ayers Rock in English), a tourist site for whites, was recaptured by the Anangu tribe who live in the desert of the center of the country, in the Northern Territory, and for whom this promontory is a place of immemorial worship.
Now the Aborigines are managing and protecting it. But the top of the impressive red monolith is still accessible to hikers, much to Anangu’s chagrin. Fortunately, 40 kilometers to the southwest, the sumptuous rocks of Kata Tjuta (The Olgas), to which the Aborigines attach even more symbolic value, are much less frequented by tourists and thus retain some of their mystery.
Lush nature. “Tjukurpa (Aboriginal theme for the creation of the universe) is the basis of Aboriginal life,” says James, Anangu guide, “it governs the relationship between humans, plants, animals and the land. creation of all living creatures and the landscape and teaches Anangu how best to behave socially and environmentally. Tjukurpa is the law for us. James adds that some aspects of these principles of life should not be shared with visitors to Uluru National Park, which explains the discretion of the Aborigines, whose communities are inaccessible without special permission.
If they do not have this ancestral and privileged link with nature, the whites nevertheless attach great importance to ecology. In addition to the many territories administered by the aborigines, the country has developed many natural parks to preserve environments of great diversity. Among the most famous, of course, is the Great Barrier Reef. Others are much less known, such as Coorong Park, near Adelaide, in southern Australia: this language of land and sand stretches along the sea and is home to lagoons where 150 species of birds flourish, including some extremely rare.
This is the case of the Orange-bellied Parakeet, which migrates from Tasmania to Coorong in winter. Only about 200 individuals would remain.Many more, pelicans and spectacled grebes avidly visit these serene beaches, where they are protected. They are also found on Kangaroo Island, as large as Corsica, located off Adelaide and whose shores were explored by the Frenchman Nicolas Baudin in 1802. It houses the Flinders Chase National Park and several nature reserves, where kangaroos, wallabies and koalas swarm. But they are so many to live in eucalyptus, which is their only food, that they can die of starvation by eradicating all these trees. A koala rescue plan is under consideration …
In the tropics, in northeastern Australia, other lesser-known nature parks also protect endangered species, such as the iconic cassowary, a cousin of ostriches and emus. This huge black bird with a blue and red neck carries a distinctive cartilage. Reduced to about 1500 individuals, the species lives alone in the lush forest along the Pacific Ocean coast around Cairns, Queensland. This region is called “the wet tropics”.
Patient and quiet observers may have the opportunity to see it sneaking among the creepers and tree trunks. The cassowary’s rarity is due in part to the fact that the bird needs a vast territory, which takes away from the excesses of deforestation. Based in Cairns, the Australian Rainforest Foundation is trying to rebuild this lost territorial continuity by purchasing land converted to sugarcane fields.
“We are funding the protection of the Australian rainforest,” says Roger Philipps, the foundation’s director. We promote scientific research to better understand how these environments are formed, allowing us to find new methods of preservation, and we carry out education and information missions for the general public.”
Many other animal species live in this 900,000 hectare region, which has been on the World Heritage List since 1988. Thanks in part to the growing influence of Aboriginal culture, which some communities also live in the rainforest, Australia has become aware of its fabulous natural wealth. These initiatives allow visitors to discover an impressive variety of beautiful places, called to last, hopefully.
Despite Australia’s progress, having just ratified Kyoto, the country’s environmental policy still needs to focus on adapting the water, agriculture, transport and energy sectors to environmental concerns.
As part of its mission of policy support to the 30 countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the organization devotes peer reviews to each of its member countries, including the environment and progress made in this regard. They study the countries’ efforts to achieve their national targets and international commitments on the environment and make recommendations. After completing a first cycle of 32 reviews covering all OECD countries and three non-member countries, a second cycle is well underway.The focus is on sustainable development, environmental efficiency and economic efficiency.
This report reviews Australia’s progress since the previous OECD Environmental Performance Review in 1998, and assesses the extent to which the country has achieved its national targets and is meeting its international commitments on environmental management. and natural resources. It also reviews progress made in the context of the OECD Environmental Strategy and the recommendations of the previous review.
The review shows that the institutional framework for environmental management in the country has improved during the period under review, with the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act of 1999. With respect to water, progress has been made in the implementation of water management reforms and the establishment of a coherent pricing structure for drinking water and irrigation at the national level. Initiatives have also been launched to encourage consumers to favor water-saving products, particularly through eco-labeling.
With respect to air quality, during the period under review, Australia adopted national standards under a National Environmental Protection Measure (NMPP), which sets limit values for ambient concentrations. six classic pollutants. As a general rule, ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead are below the NEPM limit values, the report says. Australia has also established a National Pollutant Inventory and has begun publishing the corresponding data. In 2002, the use of leaded gasoline also ceased and fuel quality standards for sulfur and benzene content were strengthened.
“Challenges” also remain in water management, especially as total water consumption in Australia continues to rise. The ramshackle nature of some irrigation systems and some urban water distribution networks continues to cause excessive leakage and evaporation events leading to significant water losses. Major estuaries suffer from chronic eutrophication problems (algal blooms), leading to the appearance of anoxic zones that disrupt aquatic ecosystems. Poor coastal water quality also threatens parts of the Great Barrier Reef near the coast. In addition to some possibilities for reuse and recycling of
The OECD adds that the sustainability of Australia’s agricultural sector still needs improvement. In particular, Australia needs to address the cumulative negative effects of certain agricultural practices, such as overgrazing, land clearing, unsustainable irrigation that have increased soil salinity and acidity, erosion and pest damage. The use of nitrogen fertilizers also increased during the period under review, resulting in eutrophication of freshwater bodies and marine waters.
While Australia ratified the Kyoto Protocol in December 2007, marking the country’s commitment to reduce its GHG emissions, the OECD, which included 45 recommendations in its report, advises Australia to redouble its efforts to reduce emissions from the transport sector. The OECD recommends, for example, the application of market-based instruments to make the fleet cleaner and improve modal split (road pricing and congestion, fuel and vehicle taxes, parking fees, etc.). It also advises to provide a carbon price through the establishment of a national system for greenhouse gas emissions trading, and