Discover all about tyrannidae, a very large bird family.

Tyrannidae, Flycatchers are a family of passerine birds that live in North and South America, but are found mainly in tropical regions. They inhabit all types of terrain, preferably open or semi-open areas, ranging from coastal mangroves to glaciers in the Andes, deserts, tropical forests and open plains.

Family Tyrannidae

The family of Tyrannidae (Tyrannidae) is known to include more than four hundred species of small American birds. Mosqueritos, fiofíos, cachuditos, Piojitos, tachuríes, doraditos, tiranuelos, mosqueros, rabicanos, orejeritos, wingback, sietecolores, caderas (AVE) s, cimerillos, titirijíes, picoplanos, moscaretas, birros, pibíes, Negritos, pitajos, peutrén, viuditas rosa, yetapás, Monjitas, Diucón, gaucho, dormilonas, ganado matón (birds of America), bienteveos, matón (ave) s, tuquitos, tijeretas, plañidera (EVA) s, burlistos, copetones Attila (ave) s and Anambé flebótomos.

According to the International Ornithological Congress (IOC) classifications and family groups Clements Checklist18 following genera and species, the taxonomic differences between them, as well as the Birds of the World (HBW) and BirdLife International (BLI) classifications, annotated in the chapter genera and species with unresolved taxonomy or taxonomic notes.

Taxa for which there is not complete agreement on their status as full-fledged species or subspecies show the name in nominal brackets. Spanish names are those adopted by the Spanish Ornithological Society (SEO), except those in square brackets attributed to Aves del Mundo.

Characteristics of tyrannidae

Tyrannidae tyrannids preserve all types of terrain and are found from mangroves to the coast, to glaciers in the Andes, as well as in deserts, rainforests and open plains.

It occurs mainly on insects that capture the flight, although terrestrial species living in the Andesjagen pursue it on the ground. A good number of species also eat berries and fruits and some forage among the leaves.

Usually their grains are open in a cup, but some build enclosed structures with access to one or more, and there are others that live in crevices in walls or rocks or holes in trees. When they have livestock, they protect them by hunting raptors in fear, without fear, so that they move from these places and favor other despicable birds.

Tyrannidae make two or even three positions during the year and lay three to five eggs, a piece of uniformly colored, white or slightly yellowish and most of them spotted or with black or more or less reddish spots.

They are birds with a long cord like head, sensibly straight to the top, ending in a very sharp hook, quite strong. The toes are long, the short nails are thin and sharp, the fingers are short and the wings are elongated. Some species have the upper part ornamented with the long side.

Tyrannidae birds are of Tyrannidae size between medium and small (6.5 to 28 cm). Their plumage costume is usually a varied mixture of black, brown, white, yellow and green. Many have an erectile weapon. The family is very different in body proportions, shape and structure of the upperparts and leg length. Superficially they resemble gnatcatchers, singers, etc. Old World (family Muscicapidae), but are not closely related to them, are generally more robust and have stronger beaks.

They are birds like perching on perches (upper tree branches) and chasing insects in flight. They have pointed wings and sometimes long tails.Its mouth at the basal part of the mouthpiece, the vibrissae (special pens) long, which serve to catch insects easier, creating a funnel. (see article: Songbirds).

In the same way we can note that generalizations for this family tyrannidae are difficult. Most species are colorful, but some are light or colorful (or both). Most are small birds, but some are quite large.

The least of all is Coli Short-tailed Flycatcher small (Myiornis ecaudatus), 6.5 cm and weighing 4 to 5 g, is slightly smaller than its congeners Hooded Flycatcher (Myiornis atricapillus) and inferior passerine world considered, often confused with an insect the larger the larger gaucho (Lividus spinosus) which measures 28 to 28.5 cm and weighs 99 g.

This is without taking into account a few tyrannidae species such as the great tyrant bander (Gubernetes yetapá), pink earwig (Tyrannus forficatus) and savannah earwig (Tyrannus savana) which has a total length of up to 41 cm, but this depends mainly on its extremely long lines, braided savannah feathers known to have a longer bird tail.

Agriornis lividus, the largest tyrant. Myiornis ecaudatus, the smallest bird in the world. Its plumage suit is usually a varied mixture of black, brown, white, yellow and green. Many have an erectile gun. The family is very different in body proportions, shape and structure of the upperparts and leg length. Superficially they resemble gnatcatchers, singers, etc.

Behavior

Most tyrannidae tyrannids are conspicuous, but some are famous for hiding in dense thickets. They are very territorial birds, aggressive with other raptors flying over their territories. Sharks will urinate in flight towards species such as Caracara Carancho (Polyborus Plancus), Caracara Chimango (Milvago Chimango), American Kestrel (Falco Sparrow), among other raptors.

Feeding

Most of this species tyrannidae, feeds on insects that see the foliage but a significant number capture them in flight from perches (high branches in the trees) while others are more or less terrestrial; Some consume fruit, especially when they are not in the breeding season. Nose format and location vary greatly. Many are highly called and the voice is often the key to their identification, while others are substantially subdued.

Taxonomy

Extensive molecular genetic and morphological studies by several authors notably Ohlson et al. (2007), 8 Tello and Bates (2007) Ohlson et al. (2008) and Tello et al. (2009) uncovered a number of new relationships within suboscine passerines, and especially in the family Tyrannidae, that are not yet reflected in most classifications. Following these studies, Ohlson et al. (2013) proposed the division of Tyrannidae, from an earlier classification (essentially that proposed by Fitzpatrick (2004) to the following families, some of which are new creations:

Onychorhynchidae Tello, Moyle, Marchese & Cracraft, 2009<br(2013), shows the complete classification proposed for the superfamily Tyrannoidea with the respective subdivisions (clades), in subfamilies and tribes of each of the families described above and the genera grouped in each of them.

The anambés (Pachyramphus and Xenopsaris), titiras (Tityra), and plañideras (Laniocera) were assigned in the past to the family Cotingidae and to Tyrannidae but there is agreement now in the various taxonomies to include them in their own family, Tityridae. Proposal No. 313 to the SACC, following the molecular phylogeny studies of Ohlson et al. (2007),? approved the adoption of the new family Tityridae, including these and other genera.

Distribution by habitat

They are generally insectivorous, although some eat fruit. The beardless flycatcher (Camptostoma imberbe) and the slit-throated anambe (Pachyramphus aglaiae) have been protected species in the United States since 1918. They have been protected in the United States since 1918.

They are tyrannidae birds that perch on perches (upper branches of trees) and hunt insects on the fly. Hence their incidence in beekeeping, because very easily they take the queens in their fertilization flights.

It is not a problem for beekeepers who feed on worker bees, by virtue of their high numbers in the hive. They pointed wings and sometimes long tails. Their mouth, located in the basal part of the beak, presents long vibrissae (special feathers), in order to capture insects more easily, generating a kind of funnel.

Their nests are generally open in the form of a cup, some species build closed structures with entrance to one side or below, and others nest in cracks in walls or rocks, or in holes in trees.

They are very territorial birds, aggressive with other raptors that fly over their territories. You can see the shells of the bando turtles in flight to the carangueus (Polyborus plancus), the chimangios (Milmos chimango), the falconcitos (Falco sparverius), etc.. The typical genus Tyrannus is a group of birds that hunt insects in flight. In English they are called Kingbirds.

Birds of this family Tyrannidae have been irradiated in all possible environments from tropical mountain forests to dry grasslands in Patagonia and the Andes. In many areas, among the most numerous and conspicuous birds, the greatest diversity is found in lowland rainforests. Some are migratory, some species come from the Americas, others move north during the Australian winter.

The number of species of fly fragments is very varied in different habitats. The highest diversity (up to ninety species) corresponds to tropical evergreen rainforests, while the lowest (only one species) found in rivers, palm groves, sand forests, forest margins, southern temperate forests and margins, wet wash and semi-wet rock and northern temperate grasslands.

Tyranide specialization has been very intense in coniferous forests: in lowland forests there are 49 endemic species and mountain. The geographical richness is the highest species found in Colombia, on the southern coast of Brazil and the regions of Manabi (Ecuador) and Tumbes (Peru). (see article: Aegithalos caudatus).

Nest

Their nests are generally open in the form of a cup, some species build closed structures with entrance to one side or below, and others nest in cracks in walls or rocks, or in holes in trees. They are very territorial birds, aggressive with other raptors flying over their territories. Earwigs come to the savannah to bathe in flying caracaras (Polyborus plancus), chimangos (Milmos chimango), falcons (Falco sparverius), etc.

Genus Ornithion

Among this genus of this family we can name the Ornithion desamparado, the spotted flycatcher3 (Ornithion inerme), also called white eyebrows flycatcher (Venezuela), alipunteado Tiranolete (Ecuador), alipunteado pequeño tirano (in Colombia), lores papamoscas blanco (Peru) or poiaeiro-la-sobrancelha (in Portuguese in Brazil), a passerine bird belongs to the genus Ornithion that integrates the family Tyrannidae. It is native to South America.

Habitat

It is distributed in eastern and southeastern Colombia, in southern and southeastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, south to eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and northern, western and central Brazil (Amazonia to the east, to the east of Pará and Maranhao northwest); also, apparently isolated population on the east coast of Brazil (Alagoas south of Rio de Janeiro). Its natural habitats are both tropical rainforests and dry forests in low regions, up to 1200 m altitude.

Flugsnappare ventriamarillo ventriamarillo or white-browed flycatcher (Yellow-bellied tyrant) is a species of passerine in the family Tyrannidae. It is home to Central America, which includes Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama. Its habitat is tropical and subtropical rainforest and scrub. It has no recognized subspecies.

flycatcher coronipardo (Ornithion brunneicapillus), also known as brown flycatcher (Venezuela), gorripardo Tiranolete (in Ecuador), small tyrant cejon (Colombia), mosquerito gorricafé (Costa Rica) or brown hat flycatcher, 2 is a passeriform belongs The genus Ornithion was integrated to the family Tyrannidae. It is built in Central and South America.

Distribution from the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica, through Panama south to north and west of Colombia, west of Ecuador, Venezuela and locally in the west and north (eastward to southern Miranda). It lives in the trunks of trees and the edges of tropical rainforests at 1200 meters altitude.

Genera of Tyrannidae

Here are some types of Tyrannidae:

Camptostoma

The beardless flycatcher3 (beardless camptostoma), also known as the chirpy flycatcher (in Costa Rica and Nicaragua) or beardless flycatcher (in Mexico) is a species of passerine bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is native to Central America and southern North America.

It is distributed from the southern United States (southern Arizona, southern Texas) and Mexico (including the Yucatan Peninsula and the islands of Holbox and Cozumel) in southern Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, northwestern Costa Rica. Its natural habitat includes tropical and subtropical rainforests, savannas, scrublands, wetlands and deserts. C.

The species bajista was first described by the British zoologist Philip Sclater Lutley in 1857 under the same scientific name; type town “San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico”.

The generic name “Camptostoma” comes from the Greek mouth of “kamptoos” and “stomatos stoma”; it means “crooked beak”; and the species name “beardless” comes from the Latin “imberbis”: without beard. populations of the southern United States (Arizona) and northwestern Mexico, probably, with the longest bill, more olive above and yellow below, described as the species ridgwayi (Brewster, 1882), and others from the island of Cozumel, Parkes and thyellophilum called Phillips, 1999, based on The minimal differences in the length of the summit (small base units) are considered impossible to distinguish from the nominal ones.

Type Camptostoma obsletun

(Camptostoma obsoletum), also called Whistler’s whistle (Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay), Whistler’s tyrant (Colombia), Whistler’s flycatcher (in Peru and Costa Rica), Whistler’s southern tyrant (Panama) or hairless flycatcher (in Venezuela) is a species of passerine in the family Tyrannidae, one of the two camptostoma genus. It is native to Central and South America.

It is distributed from the west coast of Costa Rica, through Panama, Colombia, in eastern Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, in southern Ecuador, west of the Andes of central Peru and east of the Andes, Bolivia and north central Argentina; and through the center and east of the continent, along Brazil, Paraguay, to Uruguay and central Argentina.

This species is distributed and environmentally tolerant to different environments, including urban and generally usual in semi-open habitats and forest edges, especially at low altitudes, but also in dry valleys; in the Amazon are less numerous and prefer the canopy and forest edges and floodplains beach. It is also common in dry regions west of the Andes. It is from sea level to 2800 m altitude.

It measures between 9.5 and 10 cm in length and between 7 and 9 g. It is olive colored, as well as the rest of the upper region. It has a grayish spine. The eyebrows are gray and white. The eye ring is narrow and white. The wings are fusions with light yellow or white wing and secondary margins. (see article: Carduelis Flammea).

The tail is fuscous and has a narrow whitish tip. The neck is dull white. The rest of the lower region is pale yellow, with some oil on the chest. The legs are black. Fist is short, blackish at the top and slant and orange at the base.

Genus Pseudocolopteryx, the doraditos

The golden lemon (Pseudocolopteryx citreola), also called the yellow bird, is a member of the genus Pseudocolopteryx, family Tyrannidae.

This bird is distributed in the center-west of the Southern Cone of South America. This monotypic species was originally described by the German ornithologist Christian Ludwig Landbeck, in 1864, with specimens from central Chile, giving the scientific name: Arundinicola citreola. The type locality is the banks of the Mapocho River, in Santiago. The type specimen is deposited in the New York Museum.

In 1926, Alexander Wetmore mentions it for Argentina and describes its voice. A year later, Carl Edward Hellmayr synonymized it into the Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris species based on similarities in plumage and measurements, although the averages of the P. flaviventris pith show a total and greater than P. flaviventris long wings. He did not even give a subspecies category, so the name was entirely in the synonymy of P. flaviventris.

For a long time this taxon was treated as non-existent, until in 2010 it was shown that the birds of western Argentina and Chile are slightly larger and have a very different song with respect to those living in eastern Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil. Both taxa are reproductively separated by the arid shrublands of the mountain phytogeographic province, which has no suitable habitat for either species.

Genus Myiopagis

Found from Panama through Colombia, Venezuela and the Guyanas to Bolivia and Brazil. It also occurs in Trinidad and Tobago. This species is found in forests and mangrove swamp margins.

The nest is a glass nest built with roots, shells and grasses in a tree. The typical setting is two cream-colored eggs marked with russet and lavender. The adult is 12.7 cm long and weighs 12.2 g.The head has a black crown with a central, partially hidden, white or pale yellow band. The upperparts are olive green, and the brown feathered wings have yellow edges and two yellow wing bars. The throat is whitish and the breast is shaded greenish yellow to yellow on the belly. It is black on top and pink in front. The sexes are similar.

M. g. trinitatis, the subspecies endemic to Trinidad, is larger and has weaker upperparts than the mainland subspecies. They are seen singly or in pairs, cobbled together, engaged in catching insects and spiders in the upper levels of the foliage.In addition, they usually eat berries.

The gray Fiofio (Elaenia gris) also called Bobito gris (in Venezuela), Elene gris (in Colombia), Fiofio ceniciento (Argentina and Paraguay), Plata nero piojito that the FIO Lenge gris (in Peru or cava guaranine Cinzenta (in Portuguese in Brazil), 4 is a genus myiopagis paseriforme, which integrates the family Tyrannidae. This bird is distributed from Panama to central America.

It measures 10 to 12 cm. The cock is gray with a white stripe on the crown; blackish wing with two white ribbons and fillets. Throat and breast black, stomachs grayish gray, grayish white. The female is olive above, grayish head with yellowish stripes on the crown; black wings with two yellowish stripes and fillets. The underside is yellowish, belly with a more vivid color. The juvenile is spotted with chestnut on the wings and upperparts.

It extends from Panama to the northwest and northeast of Argentina. Including Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay inhabit forest edges, middle and upper strata, especially in gallery forests and secondary forests and rain, mountains and hills and plains. It avoids dry forests.

Couple, tail a little sharper, flows through the foliage higher in the same layer, ships kill; often after mixed flocks.the song is rhythmic and begins with high-pitched tones, followed by fast and tremular cutting as decresce and opening “sui sui sui sui sui influence-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R-R”; may follow sharper notes, well anunciated.

This species was originally described by the English nature William Swainson in 1835 under the scientific name: Tyrannula caniceps. Its type locality is: “Santo Amaro, Reconcavo da Bahia, Brazil”.

Elaenia spectabilis

The great Phiophio (Elaenia spectabilis), also called Elena austral (Colombia), hilo hilo grande (Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) or gran viudita (Uruguay), is a passerine bird belonging to the genus Elaenia that integrates the family Tyrannidae. This bird is distributed in northern and central South America.

It measures 18 cm. Olive-brown above, with a slight white eye-ring; darker wings with 2 or 3 white strips. Throat, cheek and breast are grayish and belly yellowish. It seems that Elaenia flavogaster, which is larger, but has more modest and less barred behavior is larger and its crest is more discreet, besides being more gray in his throat.

Its area of settlement extends throughout central and southern Brazil, eastern Bolivia, eastern Paraguay, Uruguay and northwestern provinces of northwestern and northeastern Argentina, reaching the south of the southern bank of the Rio de la Plata. In autumn, it migrates to the Amazon basin in southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and western Brazil. It inhabits open gallery forests, park-like rainforests, degraded or secondary forests, and wooded savannahs.

Adults are approximately 16 cm long and weigh about 24 grams. They show a bristly crest that is very evident, especially when singing. They are greenish-brown above, with a slight white eye ring; darker wings with two white strips. Throat white, chest grayish, belly yellowish.

Makes closed nests and deposits two white eggs with red spots at a time. The female incubates for sixteen days and cares for the young before she can fly for about the same length of time. The threads are targeted by small onivorous mammals such as saguis (Callithrix jacchus), which usually demolish their nests during the dry season (when fruits are scarce), despite the birds’ efforts to defend their place.